In his speech of 20 August 2001, HM The King has sounded the alarm, warning against the danger of the proliferation of unhealthy habit and called for the adoption of a national program to fight against this phenomenon. Returns the same interest in the speech that the Sovereign on the occasion of the opening of Parliament 11 October 2001: “We can not preserve the citizen’s dignity in him decent housing and accelerating the implementation of national program to fight against substandard housing and slum clearance. These are, indeed, a threat to the cohesion and the equilibrium of the social fabric and a source of frustration, exclusion, deviation and extremism, “said the King.
But it is the 2003 Speech from the Throne that would be the prelude to an aggressive policy of fight against slums. “Two years later, instead of a gradual eradication of slums, We, on the occasion of our visits to different regions of the Kingdom, noted with bitterness, their proliferation in many cities. Worse was born shantytowns that are propagated and amplified to become real urban wild, “says the Sovereign who is responsible for this state of things as well as citizen leaders, local authorities and communities .
Nearly 5 million Moroccans live in substandard housing. Habitat that not only distorts and disfigures the Moroccan urban landscape, but also the bed of the proliferation of many social ills.
The opinion of all, the situation of slums became so alarming that it does not suffer the wait. Therefore, a large project was launched to eradicate slums, provide the poorest housing in proportion to their resources and address the challenges posed by old derelict houses.
100 000 units per year
From 2003, the pace of the fight against illegal slums and intensifies launch 96 projects for the realization of 265,000 units, sanction overruns committed in terms of housing and town planning, upgrading the profession of architect, setting up a guarantee fund to facilitate the populations low and irregular incomes, access to property, etc..
In order to ensure a large number of Moroccan decent housing, the pace of housing construction took its cruising speed. Thus, it was planned to build over the two years 2003 and 2004 some 450,000 housing units with a 9500 value not exceeding 120 000 dh.
In 2004, 103,000 units were built with 27,000 units restructured.
In 2005, it was expected to reach the figure of 100,000 units planned by year.
During this same year new sites were opened in Sidi Yahya Zair (near Rabat) and Tamansourte (region of Marrakech).
Cities without Slums
To achieve its program “Cities without Slums” (VSB), the government has butchers double allocating project a budget of 75 billion dirhams, of which 25 billion paid by the State, and by mobilizing a tax base 18,000 hectares.
To allow this program to succeed, the institutions responsible for housing and under the supervision of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development has been restructured to better regulate the field of housing and the planning. Thus, five new urban agencies were created and others are in the planning stage.
The “cities in slums” is already beginning to bear fruit because at the end of 2005, the city of Meknes was the first Moroccan city to be cleared of slums and thus have met the challenge of becoming a model city nationwide.
Law 04/04 criminalizes fraud
Law 04/04 has strengthened control in the fight against substandard housing. The provisions of this Act relate essentially defining the terms of issue of the building permit and the conditions for the opening of a site. But the innovation introduced by this law is tougher penalties for fraud. Indeed, the law 04-04 does not hesitate to criminalize offenses of slums and unplanned. Thus, Article 71 provides example sentences of imprisonment ranging from three months to one year’s imprisonment and a fine of 50,000 to 300,000 dirhams or one of these two penalties against any person who engages construction without obtaining the building permit.
The penalty is even heavier for the president of the municipal council or his deputy would have issued a building permit regardless of the procedure. This penalty varies between 6 months and 4 years in prison and a fine of 100 000 to 500 000 dh or one of these penalties.
In addition, pursuant to the Act, local authorities have broad powers to destroy their home does not meet current standards.